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Anwar Ahmed v. Union Of India & Others - WRIT - A No. 38153 of 2002 [2006] RD-AH 9446 (12 May 2006)


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Civil Misc.Writ Petition No.38153 of 2002

Anwar Ahmad


Union of India and others


Hon.Sanjay Misra, J.

( Delivered by Hon.Sanjay Misra,J.)

The petitioner who was working as Assistant Station Master, Bundki railway station was served with a charge sheet  dated 16.2.1999 on two charges regarding interpolating the date in the fitness memo by changing  the same and for shortage of Rs.1836/- in the sale of railway tickets during   July 1998 and August 1998. By an order dated 2.6.1999 an Inquiry Officer was appointed  who found that the charges against the petitioner were established. A notice dated 20.12.1999 was given  to the petitioner who replied  to the same on 14.3.2000. The disciplinary authority upon considering  the same  imposed the punishment  of removal from service by the order dated 10.4.2000. The appeal of the  petitioner was rejected on 30.5.2000. In revision the revisional authority reduced the punishment of removal  from service  to compulsory retirement. The O.A. No.397 of 2001  (Anwar Ahmad Vs. Union of India and others) was dismissed on 2.5.2002. This writ petition has been filed  for quashing  of the aforesaid orders.

Counter affidavit and rejoinder affidavit have been exchanged and learned counsel for the parties have been heard.

The first argument raised by the learned counsel for  the petitioner  is that  the petitioner was denied full and proper


opportunity  to defend himself during the  enquiry. It is contended that  one Sri R.K.Sharma, ASM was not examined during the enquiry  he being  a vital witness to whom leave application and sick fit certificate  was handed over. The petitioner has, therefore,  been deprived of an  opportunity to defend himself.  It is also contended that in the normal course shortage of cash in sale of railway tickets occurs and the same is made good by the concerned official. The Enquiry Officer  it is contended   has not considered these aspects of the matter and, therefore,  the enquiry report  dated 18.12.1999 is vitiated in the eye of law. It has also been contended that  the appellate order and the revisional order are  non-speaking orders and  therefore, suffer from the vice of non-application of mind and the punishment awarded to the petitioner is disproportionate to the charge found proved against him.  Learned counsel for the petitioner  has further contended that  learned Tribunal has failed to consider  this aspect of the matter and as such  the impugned orders  are  liable to be set aside.

Learned counsel appearing on behalf of the  respondents has contended that  full opportunity  was given to the petitioner  by the Enquiry Officer. The petitioner  never applied  for summoning Sri R.K.Sharma, ASM as his defence witness. It has been contended that  Sri R.K. Sharma was not included in the list  of prosecution witnesses and therefore, it was open for the petitioner to summon him as a defence witness. It is also  contended that  the disciplinary authority and the appellate authority afforded full opportunity of personal hearing to the petitioner prior  to passing of the orders. The revisional authority gave personal hearing  to the petitioner and purely on humantarian ground and sympathetic consideration, the punishment  of removal  from service  was reduced  to compulsory retirement. It is  contended that in so far as  charge no.2 is concerned the only defence put up by the petitioner  was that shortage of Rs.1836/- in the sale of


railway tickets occurs usually and it is made good by the concerned official. As such  he submits that  on the evidence led before the Enquiry Officer the charge of shortage is itself proved.  However, it is contended that witnesses were  examined  and documents were  considered  by the Enquiry Officer while recording his finding that the said  charges are established.

Learned counsel for the respondents has placed reliance on a decision of the Hon'ble Supreme Court rendered in the case of Ranjit Thakur Vs. Union of India and others, reported in (1987) 4 Supreme Court Cases 611 and has relied upon paragraphs 25,26 and 27. His contention is that a judicial review of administrative action is not directed against the decision, but  is directed against  the decision making process.  The choice of quantum of punishment  is within the jurisdiction  of the disciplinary authority. He submits that interference  would only be required  if the punishment  is outrageous  and in defiance of logic. Learned counsel for the respondents submit that in the present case the punishment of dismissal awarded to the petitioner  cannot be said to be strikingly  disproportionate.

In the case of B.C.Chaturvedi Vs. Union of India and others reported in 1996 SCC( L & S) 80 the Hon'ble Supreme Court  has held as quoted below:-

" Judicial review is not an appeal from a decision of the manner in which the decision is made. Power of judicial review  is meant to ensure  that the individual  receives fair treatment  and not to ensure that the conclusion  which the authority reaches is necessarily  correct in the eye of law.  When an inquiry is conducted on charges of misconduct by a public servant, the Court/ Tribunal is concerned to determine whether the enquiry was held by a competent officer or whether rules of natural justice are complied with.  Whether the findings or conclusions are based on some evidence, the authority entrusted with the power to hold inquiry has jurisdiction, power and authority to reach a finding of fact or conclusion. But the finding must be based on some evidence.


Neither the technical rules of Evidence Act nor of proof of fact or evidence as defined therein, apply to disciplinary proceeding. When the authority accepts that evidence and

conclusion receives support therefrom, the disciplinary authority is entitled to hold that the delinquent officer is guilty of the charge. The Court/Tribunal in its power of judicial review does not act as appellate authority to reappreciate the evidence and to arrive at its own independent findings on the evidence. The Court/Tribunal may interfere where the authority held the proceedings against the delinquent officer in a manner inconsistent with the rules of natural justice or in violation of statutory rules prescribing the mode of inquiry or where the conclusion or finding reached by the disciplinary authority is based on no evidence. If the conclusion or finding be such as no reasonable person would have ever reached, the Court/Tribunal may interfere with the conclusion or the finding, and mould the relief so as to make it appropriate to the facts of reach case.

The disciplinary authority is the sole judge of facts. Where appeal is presented, the appellate authority has coextensive power to reappreciate  the evidence or the nature of punishment. In a disciplinary inquiry, the strict proof of legal evidence and findings on that evidence are not relevant. Adequacy of evidence or reliability of evidence cannot be permitted to be canvassed before the Court/ Tribunal. In Union of India Vs. H.C. Goel this court held at p.728 that if the conclusion, upon consideration of the evidence reached by the disciplinary authority, is perverse or suffers  from patent error on the face of the record  or based on no evidence at all, a writ of certiorari could be issued."

In the case of Union of India and another Vs. G.Ganayutham,  reported in  (1997) 7 Supreme Court Cases 463,  it has been held that reasonableness and rationality  are grounds for judicial review and the principle  of proportionality can be invoked where the court has to find out  whether  the authority concerned  has left out relevant factors or taken into account  irrelevant  factors.

Learned counsel for the respondents  submits that  the decision of the  disciplinary authority could be one of many choices, which were open  before  the authority  concerned and it was for the said


authority to decide  upon the choice and it is not for the court  to substitute the view of the authority.

Relying upon a case of  Om Kumar Vs. Skipper Construction and another, reported in 2000 Suppl (3) JT SC 93,  learned counsel for the respondents has submitted that there is a distinction between the  discriminatory administrative  action and arbitrary administrative action.  Therefore, when the principle of proportionality is to be applied, the courts  would be unlikely to  interfere unless  it shocks the judicial conscience of the court. He has also argued  that even in the event  that the punishment is found to be disproportionate to the charge proved against  the delinquent, the court  would  be inclined to remit the matter back to the disciplinary authority to consider  the quantum  of punishment, which was required to be given to such charged employee.

In the case of  Regional Manager UPSRTC and another Vs. Holi Lal and another reported in 2003 Volume-3 SCC 605, the Hon'ble Supreme Court  has laid down that  the test  of proportionality  is very limited and restricted to exceptional  cases. While dealing with a case of misconduct that had caused  a loss of Rs.16/- to the State,  the Hon'ble Supreme Court held that  mere statement  that the punishment  was disproportionate would not be  sufficient. It was held that the disciplinary authority  and the appellate authority being the fact finding authorities  have exclusive power to consider  the evidence and with a view  to maintain discipline, it is in their discretion  to impose appropriate punishment keeping in view  the magnitude or gravity of misconduct.  It is only when punishment imposed by such authorities shocks the conscious of the court that it would be appropriate for the court to direct said authorities  to consider the penalty imposed or the court itself in exceptional and rare cases impose appropriate punishment  with cogent reasons. While deciding the  proportionality of punishment factors such as mental set


up, type of duty and similar circumstances have to be taken into consideration.  

In view of the settled position in law regarding scope of judicial  review  under Article 226 of the Constitution of India this court finds that  there was no illegality in the decision  making process. It was the petitioner  who could have summoned his defence witness before the Enquiry Officer. However, inspite of being informed in writing on 2.9.1999 to produce his defence witness the petitioner  did not intimate to the Enquiry Officer  for summoning his witness. Since    Sri R.K.Sharma,ASM was not included in the list of prosecution witnesses and the petitioner did not apply for summoning him as a defence witness, therefore,  it cannot  be said  that the Inquiry Officer  has failed to provide full  and sufficient  opportunity to the petitioner during the  enquiry proceeding. The petitioner's contention with respect to not being given full and proper opportunity  is  confined to his plea about non-examination of Sri R.K.Sharma, ASM. However, in view of aforesaid  circumstances, the petitioner  is himself to blame  for not summoning or producing  his defence witness during the enquiry proceeding. It therefore, cannot be held that the principles of natural justice were violated during the enquiry proceedings. Full opportunity was afforded to the petitioner by the Enquiry Officer.

It is also seen that his explanation with respect to second charge was not found  satisfactory  and in effect it admitted that there was short fall in the sale of  railway tickets. In view of the findings recorded by the authorities it appears that  they came to the conclusion that the petitioner was not a fit person tobe retained in service inasmuch as the employer has lost confidence on the petitioner.


On the basis of Enquiry Report and the explanation given by the petitioner upon show cause notice the Disciplinary Authority has concurred with  the findings of the Enquiry Officer. It is settled law that the concurrence of the Disciplinary Authority with the reasoning and conclusion of the Enquiry Officer means that the Disciplinary Authority has adopted the conclusion and the basis of the conclusion as its own. It is, therefore, not necessary for the Disciplinary Authority to restate the reasoning. It appears  that the petitioner has filed the order dated 10.4.2000 imposing the punishment  but has not filed the order of the Disciplinary Authority dated 4.4.2000 which was the basis and contained  the reasons. Therefore, it can not be held that the Authority had not applied its mind while passing the order  of punishment.

The Revisional Authority gave opportunity of personal hearing to the petitioner. It has held that the enquiry was held in a legal manner and that the petitioner had committed acts of misconduct. He had been given punishment even in the past. Consequently the Revisional Authority has formed its opinion that it would not be in public interest to retain the petitioner in service.

No error can be found in the orders of revisional authority where  it has taken a humanitarian  and sympathetic view by reducing the punishment of removal from service to compulsory retirement.

The Tribunal has considered  the case of the petitioner and has held  that the petitioner was afforded full opportunity  to defend himself. At no stage of the proceedings there has been any violation of the principles of natural justice. From the facts of this case it is found that the impugned orders do not suffer from any error of law. The punishment of dismissal from service has been reduced to compulsory retirement. It therefore can not be said that the punishment is disproportionate to the charges found proved against the petitioner.


For the aforesaid reasons,  the writ petition has got no merit and is therefore, dismissed. No order is passed as to costs.




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