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NEMA & ORS versus STATE

High Court of Rajasthan

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NEMA & ORS v STATE - CRLA Case No. 133 of 1983 [2004] RD-RJ 731 (14 December 2004)

,

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O 1188 ( $ 2 ) Z 11 . . 7 2 Z :

"Although in an appeal against acquittal, the powers of the High Court in dealing with the case are as extensive as of the trial

Court, before reversing the acquittal, the High

Court should bear in mind that the initial presumption of the innocence of the accused is in weakened, reinforced, no way if not by his acquittal at the trial. The opinion of the trial

Court which had the advantage of observing the demean our of the witnesses, as to the value of their evidence should not be lightly discarded.

Where two views of the evidence are reasonably possible, and the trial Court has opted for one favouring acquittal, the High Court should not disturb the same merely on the ground that if it were in the position of the trial Court, it would have taken the alternative view and convicted the accused accordingly." 1996 O 2478

( Z . 2 ) 7 2 .

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"Though the Code does not make any distinction between an appeal from acquittal and an appeal from conviction so far as powers of the appellate Court are concerned, certain unwritten rules of adjudication have consistently been followed by judges while dealing with apeals against acquittal. No doubt, the High Court has full power to review the evidence and to arrive at its own independent conclusions whether the appeal is against conviction or acquittal. But while dealing with an appeal against acquittal the appellate Court has to bear in mind : first, that there is a general presumption in favour of the innocence of the person accused in criminal cases and that presumption is only strengthened by the acquittal. The second is, every accused is entitled to the benefit of reasonable doubt regarding his guilt and when the trial Court acquitted him he would retain that benefit in the appellate Court also. Thus, appellate Court in appeals against acquittals has to proceed more cautiously and only if there is absolute assurance of the guilt of the accused, upon the evidence on record, that the order of acquittal is liable to be interfered with or disturbed."

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(3) the circumstances, taken cumulatively, should form a chain so complete that there is no escape from the conclusion that within all human probability the crime was committed by the accused and none else. The circumstantial evidence in order to sustain conviction must be complete and incapable of explanation of any other hypothesis than that of the guilt of the accused. The circumstantial evidence should not only be consistent with the guilt of the accused but should be inconsistent with his innocence."

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C 302 E .2$ .$. E . $ . . ... 1956 O 54 ( $ $ ) . 7 . Z 5 6 7 $ 2 Z :

"From the solitary circumstance of the unexplained recovery of the two articles from the houses of the accused the only inference that can be raised in view of illustration ( a) to S. 114 is that they are either receivers of stolen property or were the persons who committed the theft, but it does not necessarily indicate that the theft and the murders took place at one and the same time." (Para 5)

"No hard and fast rule can be laid down as to what inference should be drawn from a certain circumstance. Where, however, the only evidence against an accused person is the recovery of stolen property and although the circumstances may indicate that the theft and the murder must have been committed at the same time, it is not safe to draw the inference that the person in possession of the stolen property was the murderer. Suspicion cannot take the place of proof." (Para 6) ... 1977 O 1063 ( $ ) . Z 4 7 2 Z :

"4. So far as the 'kesla' containing ornaments and other articles belonging to Sujan

Singh is concerned, it is no doubt true that it was recovered at the instance of the appellant and, therefore, there can be no doubt that the appellant was found in possession of stolen property soon after the incident and this circumstance clearly justified the conviction of the appellant for the offence of theft punishable under

Section 380. But the question is how far it could have any evidentiary weight for connecting the appellant with the gruesome and ghastly hutment? murders which took place in the

Obviously, something more would be required to connect the appellant with the murders than mere possession of ornaments and other articles belonging to Sujan Singh, because it is quite possible that the appellant may have had nothing to do with the murders and he might have merely stolen the ornaments and other articles belonging to Sujan Singh after the murders were committed by some others." . 7

V j . 1979 !.v.. ( .) 585 ( ) Z , .

Z 11 7 V j 2 .

Z :

"We are, therefore, satisfied that the prosecution could not successfully prove the offences under section 302, 460 and 392/397,

IPC against the appellant, because it was possible that he might have merely stolen away gold 'markies' and a 'zeroi' belonging to Teja deceased, after his murder by some one else. Appellant was found in possession of gold ' markies' and a ' zeroi' of Teja, soon after the theft and it can safely be presumed that he was a thief as he could not account for his possession of these two articles.

The appellant was, therefore, guilty of the offence under section 380, IPC and in this view of the matter his conviction has to be altered from under section 392/397 to one under 380, IPC. The appellant is, further entitled to acquittal of the offences under section 302 and 460, IPC."

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